Parliamentary Studies Lietuvos nacionalinė Martyno Mažvydo biblioteka en-US Parliamentary Studies 1648-9896 „Lietuvos Steigiamajam Seimui – 100 metų“ Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 28–45 28–45 Steigiamasis Seimas amžininko ir istoriko akimis Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 208 211 Lietuvių tauta ir Steigiamasis Seimas Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 212–214 212–214 Steigiamasis Seimas Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 215–219 215–219 Steigiamojo Seimo šimtmetis su „Liaudies seimo“ šešėliu Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 5 27 Lithuanian Army on the Eve of the Election of the Constituent Assembly (Seimas) and the Amendment of the Election Law <p>The paper deals with the fragments of the establishment of the Lithuanian Army and its fights with the Bolsheviks and Bermontists. Also, it seeks to remind the society of the victims of these fights and perpetuation of their memory. The figures of the army at the start of the year 1920 are presented. In addition, the uprising of the soldiers of the Kaunas crew in February 22–24, 1920, so-called Panemune uprising or Soldiers’ rebellion, is analyzed within the framework of the historical materials available. This event was of special significance to the army just at the stage of creation, to its image and the soldiers’ motivation. The question who prepared the uprising and who benefitted from it is not answered so far. There are several versions, e. g., it was beneficial to the Poles, because destabilization of the situation could have resulted in no elections at all, consequently, Lithuania could not be recognized by other countries as a democratic state having received the right to the elections of the Constituent Seimas, and unsatisfied soldiers might have been very useful for the enemy. An unstable situation in the Lithuanian Army was also beneficial to the Bolsheviks and the Germans, for their efforts to unite forces in would-be wars. These countries were mostly interested in the fact that Lithuania should not be recognized as a country established on a democratic basis. By analyzing the military as well as the official press, the paper reveals the Army’s attitude to the elections and the soldiers’ participation, specifically, after the uprising. Short biographies of those 15 elected to the Seimas are presented by showing their contribution to the work of the Seimas and identifying the number of officers, soldiers and volunteers, as well as the Knights of the Vytis Cross.</p> Aušra Jurevičiūtė Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Aušra Jurevičiūtė 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 46–81 46–81 10.51740/ps.vi29.157 Steigiamojo Seimo išrinkimas: lygių politinių teisių įsiteisėjimas valstybėje <p>After the announcement about the elections to the Constituent Assembly parties made their lists. About 30 parties and organizations presented the list of their candidates in the electoral districts. Most often women were included into the second pentad and sometimes into the second decade except one district where G. Petkevicaite was the first candidate on the list.</p> <p>The women candidates to the Constituent Assembly were educated; most of them single, having a social status. Most of the women candidates were active and well-known leaders in the women movement. Another feature of the women candidates was that they were young.</p> <p>In 1920, April 14–15, the Constituent Assembly was elected by the direct elections. From these 150 parliamentarians 8 were women, which made up 5.3 percent. The following women were elected from the list of Lithuanian Christian Democrats block: M. Draugelyte-Galdikiene, E. Spudaite-Gvildiene, M. Lukosiute, V. Mackevicaite, O. Muraskaite-Rasiukaitiene, S. Stakauskaite; from the lists of Lithuanian Socialists Nationalists Democrats and Lithuanian Farmers Union – G. Petkevicaite-Bite and F. Bortkeviciene. No women were elected to the Constituent Assembly from the list of social democrats. Women who received the political right to vote and to be elected took an active part in the elections to the Constituent Assembly.</p> <p>In 1920, May 15, the Constituent Assembly began in Kaunas Musical Theater. G. Petkevicaite-Bite was its leader until the formation of standing presidium and O. Muraskaite-Raciukaitiene was its secretary. This was a huge achievement for the women movement.</p> <p>G. Petkevicaite as the head of the Constituent Assembly at the beginning of her speech on the opening day of the Constituent Assembly stated that the rendering of the political rights for women was the reward for women for their long and deliberate activities in the restoration of the state. By this she desired to deny the existing superstition in the society that Lithuanian women received the rights of elections in a very easy way.</p> <p>Women parliamentarians worked in the committees of Education and Bookstore, Work and Social Security and Health, Work and Social Security</p> Virginija Jurėnienė Copyright (c) 2020 Prof. dr. Virginija Jurėnienė 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 82–97 82–97 10.51740/ps.vi29.159 Conference of Chairs of the Constituent Seimas of the Lithuania: Guidelines for the Activities of the Senior Convention <p>2020 is an exceptional year in the history of the Lithuanian state; this year marks the 100th anniversary of the Republic of Lithuania. On May 15, 1920, the Constituent Seimas, meeting in the provisional capital of Lithuania in Kaunas, solemnly proclaimed the independence of the State of Lithuania and, on behalf of all Lithuanian citizens, declared State of Lithuania as a democratic republic. The article seeks to examine the organization of the work of the first Lithuanian Parliament, elected in general and democratic elections. The purpose of the article is to review the circumstances of the formation of the Conference of Chairs of Constituent Seimas of the Lithuania (1920–1922), to determine the composition of the Conference of Chairs and the change of its members, to describe the collective portrait of them, to review the range of issues discussed at the Conference of Chairs. In the Constituent Seimas, the Conference of Chairs was formed only on 22 of May in 1922, at the sixth meeting of the Founding Seimas, after the provisional Statute of the Constituent Seimas had already been approved. The establishment of the Conference of Chairs was initiated by the Presidium of the Constituent Seimas. The main task of the Conference of Chairs was to help solve the most sensitive issues of the organization of the work of the Seimas. The Conference of Chairs consisted of the members of Presidium (seven members) of the Constituent Seimas and of 12 representatives of different political groups. First Deputy Speaker of the Constituent Seimas Jonas Staugaitis become Chairman of the Conference of Chairs. Although the Conference of Chairs of the Constituent Seimas consisted at all of 19 members, during the entire term of the Constituent Seimas there were 37 parliamentarians as members of the Conference of Chairs. By party affiliation, there were 17 – representatives of the Christian Democratic Bloc, 11 – representatives of the Peasant people’s bloc, 3 – Social Democrats, 5 – representatives of the Jewish Group and 1 – representatives of the Polish group.</p> Vilma Akmenytė-Ruzgienė Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Vilma Akmenytė-Ruzgienė 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 98–142 98–142 10.51740/ps.vi29.160 Political Context of Celebrations of Anniversaries of the Constitutional Assembly, 1927–1940 <p>The article examines the political circumstances in which the anniversaries of the Constituent Assembly were celebrated after the coup d’etat of 1926. The means by which the political regime tried to undermine the links between the „national holiday“ and the origins of parliamentary democracy are analyzed. Attempts to change May 15 as a „nation’s holiday“ into December 17 did not catch on and antagonized the public. Thus the regime was forced to leave May 15 as an official holiday, but had to change its content. During 1927–1940, gradually the Day of the Constituent Assembly evolved into a celebration of the Rapprochement of the Armed Forces and the Society (1935–1937) and the official Holiday of the Armed Forces and the Society (1938–1940).</p> <p>The commemoration of May 15 is described as the disputed political process between supporters of political pluralism and the one-party regime. The article examines the difficulties encountered in trying to organize festive events and how the interpretation of this date, presented by left-wing parties, Christian Democrats, Nationalists, and non-political organizations, has changed. Attention is drawn to the attempts of the Nationalists to popularize the 17th of December of 1926 as a symbolic beginning of the „second revival of the Lithuanian nation“. The article also describes the last commemorations of public holidays and their symbolic meaning in independent Lithuania in 1940.</p> Artūras Svarauskas Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Artūras Svarauskas 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 143–169 143–169 10.51740/ps.vi29.162 Organization of the Lithuanian Government in Exile in the Years 1941–1943 in United States: Establishment of Lithuanian National Council <p>This article discusses the attempt to create a Lithuanian Government in exile among the Lithuanian immigrants who reached the United States in 1939–1941. This topic has not been given enough attention in historical literature yet, therefore the article is based on archival documents and articles from Lithuanian American press of the time. The article explores the founding of the Lithuanian Citizens Union and its struggles as well as the opinions of the former President of Lithuania A. Smetona, other Lithuanian American organisations (the Lithuanian American Council in particular) and Lithuanian representatives in the US towards this event. Moreover, the paper reveals the backstage of establishing the Lithuanian National Council, its first steps and, later on, its decadence.</p> Juozas Skirius Copyright (c) 2020 Prof. dr. Juozas Skirius 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 170–207 170–207 10.51740/ps.vi29.163 Steigiamojo Seimo šimtmečio virtualios parodos: pažindinamės su legenda Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 220–231 220–231 Fundamentali istoriko monografija apie SSRS ir Vokietijos intrigas tarpukariu Lietuvoje, Latvijoje ir Estijoje Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 232–241 232–241 Įvykių kalendorius Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 242–244 242–244 Bibliografinis sąrašas Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 245–252 245–252 Atmintinė „Parlamento studijų“ autoriams Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 29 253–255 253–255