Lietuvos valstybės santvarkos reformų idėjos autoritarizmo laikotarpiu
Keywords:parliamentarism, democracy, political party, corporatism, “Organic State”, authoritarianism, elitism
The article deals with the questions of interwar Lithuanian political system. It tries to answer the question - who and why criticized Lithuanian parliamentarian democracy of the Twenties. What were the plans to modify authoritarian Smetona’s regime? The evolution of political views on state system of Lithuanian political elite, intelligentsia and intellectuals are analyzed. Considerations on the improvement of Lithuanian political system made by Mykolas Römeris, Stasys Šalkauskis, Levas Karsavinas, Jonas Šliūpas are described.
The article discusses the meaning of the conception of the so called “Organic State”. The program was published in the catholic journal “Naujoji Romuva” in 1936 and was led by wide and disputable response in different ideological press. The article consists of two parts. Firstly, the joint political activities of Christian Democrats and Nationalists (the two major political organizations after the coup of 1926) are described. The main goal of their politics since December of the 1926 was to change democratic Constitution of 1922. Besides, Nationalists hoped to increase political powers of the President. Christian Democrats expected to organize new elections to Seimas. The second part of the article covers the theoretic considerations made by famous Lithuanian intellectuals. Despite their different ideological views majority of them agreed, that ideal Lithuanian political regime shouldn’t be the same as it was in 1920–1926. Majority of them agreed that the number of seats in Parliament should be minimized. Legislative organ – Seimas should consist of two chambers and the role of political parties could be decreased. They planned, that the role of professional organizations or some kind of corporations should increase instead.